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Medications

  • Allopurinol (brand names Lopurin®, Zyloprim®) is a drug used to prevent the recurrence of uric acid and calcium oxalate uroliths (stones) in dogs. This medication works by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body. It is also used in the treatment of leishmaniasis in dogs and cats and is usually combined with other drugs. Be sure to tell your veterinarian about any medications (including vitamins, supplements, or herbal therapies) that your pet is taking.

  • Amitraz is a topical solution in the form of a medicated dip, spot-on treatment, or collar used to treat demodectic mange or for the prevention of flea and tick infestations. Common side effects include sedation, incoordination while walking, slow heart rate, gastrointestinal effects, skin irritation, and a temporary high blood sugar. This medication is contraindicated in very young, and used with caution in old, debilitated, diabetic, or small-breeds. While animals may exhibit signs of sedation, contact your veterinary office if your pet cannot be aroused from sleep or if the sedation lasts for more than 72 hours. Amitraz is toxic if swallowed, especially in the form of a collar, so contact your veterinary office immediately if this occurs. If they are not available, follow their directions in contacting an emergency facility.

  • Atovaquone (brand name Mepron®) is a drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. It is often combined with other drugs to treat specific infections. Side effects from atovaquone have not been reported; however, any side effects that you observe should be reported to your veterinarian. Any side effects that you observe should be reported to your veterinarian.

  • Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for a variety of bacterial, rickettsial, and parasitic infections in animals. It is often used in combination with atovaquone to treat babesiosis in dogs.

  • Azodyl® is a nutritional supplement that may decrease azotemia, a condition in which there is too much nitrogen (in the form of urea, creatinine, and other waste products) in the blood. Azotemia occurs in both dogs and cats that have chronic kidney disease (CKD). In theory, Azodyl® works by adding nitrogen-consuming bacteria into the intestines. Azodyl® should be considered an adjunct (secondary) treatment for CKD.

  • Budesonide is a glucocorticoid most often given by mouth in the form of a capsule to treat inflammatory bowel disease off-label in dogs and cats. Common side effects include increased appetite, thirst, or urination, as well as lack of energy, weakness, panting, skin and haircoat changes, and weight gain. Do not use this medication in pets allergic to it, and use with caution in pets with gastrointestinal ulcers, diabetes, infection, or cataracts. If a negative reaction occurs, call your veterinary office.

  • Butorphanol is a partial opiate agonist/antagonist that is used as an analgesic, pre-anesthetic, antitussive, or antiemetic. The injectable form is used subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously, and the tablet is given by mouth. Side effects include sedation, ataxia, anorexia, or rarely diarrhea. Caution should be used in pets with liver or kidney disease, Addison’s disease, head trauma, or other CNS dysfunction, or in geriatric or severely debilitated patients.

  • Calcium acetate is given off label and by mouth to treat elevated blood phosphorus levels, especially due to kidney disease. Side effects may include nausea or stomach upset. This medication should not be used in pets that are allergic to it or have high blood calcium levels. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Capromorelin is an appetite stimulant liquid solution given by mouth, and is used to treat inappetence. Side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, increased drinking and urination, and intestinal sounds. This medication should not be used in pets allergic to it, and be used with caution in those with liver and kidney disease. If a negative reaction occurs, call your veterinary office.

  • Carbamazepine is given my mouth and is used off label in dogs, cats, and horses to treat seizures, pain, and behavior disorders. Common side effects in animals are unknown, but may include dizziness, sleepiness, nausea, and vomiting. Do not use in pets that have recently used amitraz, are pregnant, or have bone marrow disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.